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Značenje bacanja kamenja na nemuslimane u muslimanskim zemljama

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Već sam ranije naišla na nekoliko izvora, koji spominju običaj, u nekim muslimanskim zemljama, da muslimani, uključujući tu i djecu, na Židove bacaju kamenje.

Zanima me objašnjenje ovog fenomena, kao i razjašnjenje da li se tu radi specifično o bacanju kamenja na Židove, ili i na ostale dhimmi / dimije / zimije.


Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984 str. 158.:
The situation of Jews in Arab lands reached a low point in the 19th century. Jews in most of North Africa (including Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Morocco) were forced to live in ghettos. In Morocco, which contained the largest Jewish community in the Islamic Diaspora, Jews were made to walk barefoot or wear shoes of straw when outside the ghetto. Even Muslim children participated in the degradation of Jews, by throwing stones at them or harassing them in other ways. The frequency of anti-Jewish violence increased, and many Jews were executed on charges of apostasy. Ritual murder accusations against the Jews became commonplace in the Ottoman Empire.

Lewis, Islam in History, str. 319, n. 9. u Middle Eastern Studies, vii (1971), str. 232 (ista epizoda):

Lewis ovdje iznosi ilustraciju tradicionalnog odnosa između muslimana i Židova, a iz izviješća H.E. Wilkie Younga, britanskog vicekonzula u Mosulu iz siječnja 1909.:
The attitude of the Moslems toward the Christians and Jews, to whom as stated above, they are in a majority of ten to one, is that of a master towards slaves whom he treats with a certain lordly tolerance so long as they keep their place. Any sign of pretension to equality is promptly repressed. It is often noticed in the streets that almost any Christian submissively makes way even for a Moslem child. Only a few days ago the writer saw two respectable looking, middle-aged Jews walking in a garden. A small Moslem boy, who could not have been more than 8 years old, passed by and, as he did so, picked up a large stone and threw it at them -- and then another -- with the utmost nonchalance, just as a small boy elsewhere might aim at a dog or bird. The Jews stopped and avoided the aim, which was a good one, but made no further protest.

Izviješće Yomtova Zemacha, Bulletin de I'Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1910, Beirut:
A teacher was sent from Beirut in 1910 to assess the constant reports of travail for the Yemenite Jews. He noted that, after more than a week, I have made myself acquainted with the life of the Jews in all its phases.... They are exceedingly unfortunate.... If they are abused, they listen in silence as though they had not understood; if they are attacked by an Arab boy with stones, they flee...

Dr. Abdul Halim Mahmoud (prijevod Prof Paul Eidelberg, u PLO Terrorism and the Grand Strategy, Palestinian Media Watch, 12. ožujka 2001):
Dr. Abdul Halim Mahmoud, rector of Cairo’s al-Ashar University, theologically and politically the most influential university in Islamdom: “Allah commands Moslems to fight the friends of Satan wherever they are to be found. Among the friends of Satan—indeed, among the foremost friends of Satan in the present age—are the Jews."

Nešto slično ovome, s pričom iz II. Intifade, ali i s pokušajem teološkog objašnjenja, našla sam na siteu Islam Today (The Left Hand is Sufficient for Throwing a Stone:
When the Jews’ hatred for the Messenger (peace be upon him) burned so fiercely that they decided to kill him, the best way they could find to do this was to hurl a boulder upon him from the top of a building. Allah saved him, and they returned from their attempt having earned for themselves only the sin of their treachery and deception. And now the Muslims are avenging their Prophet with the same weapon, but in broad daylight and without any treachery, scheming, or deception.

What is most interesting is that the most famous stoning that ever occurred in Islamic history was the stoning of two adulterous Jews in accordance to what was found in their own scriptures. The Prophet carried out upon them Allah’s Law that they had allowed to die. Thereafter, the direct relationship between the Jews and stones came to an end, only so it may resurface in the last of all wars when the stones and trees themselves will call out: “O Muslim, here is a Jew, so come and slay him.” Here the stones will show their allegiance to the Muslims against the hard hearted Jews to remind the people of that true and certain prophecy.

Ostali izvori vezani su uz ranija stoljeca.


Dakle, da ukratko prevedem: radi se o tome da su, u muslimanskim zemljama, na kraju 19. i u 20. stoljeću, razni svjedoci zabilježili slučajeve bacanja kamenja na Židove, cak i od strane male djece (to se i danas događa prolaznicima, kojih se djeca ne plaše, u muslimanskoj četvrti Starog Jeruzalema, ali nikad, do sad, to nisam povezivala s ovim fenomenom).

Nadalje Dr. Abdul Halim Mahmoud, rektor al-Ashara, daje, za tu pojavu, teološko objašnjenje da se muslimani stalno moraju boriti protiv Sotone te da su Židovi njegovi najbrojniji neprijatelji.


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